Aurangzeb Alamgir Summary
Aurangzeb Alamgir is famously known as the greatest emperor of the Mughal Empire. He is also referred to as the ‘Last Great Moghal’. Born in 1618, he is one of the most influential and memorable personalities of history. Since his reign spanned over three decades, it is evident that he was quite an influential emperor. His reign brought about a change in the political system of India.
In this blog, we will tell you everything you need to know about the emperor in just a few minutes. We shall also tell you what you can do to pay tribute to him and why history loves him so much! Let’s dive into it!
Aurangzeb Alamgir was the third son of emperor Shah Jahan and born on 21 October 1618 in Dohad, on the frontier of Gujarat and Rajputana.
Aurangzeb Alamgir had proved himself a capable commander and administrator as a prince, and was an able administrator who excelled his brothers in terms of competence and character. He led an austere and pious life, and strictly adhered to Islam and Sharia. During his reign, many Hindu temples were defaced and destroyed and many Indians converted to Islam. This is said to have contributed greatly to the spread of Islam in India.
Though originally from the imperial house of Tughlaq dynasty, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest Islamic rulers of India. His reign is often considered as one of the most divisive times for Indian history. Despite being called ‘Great’, he is also known for his harshness towards Hindus, burning down temples and idols, massacring men, women, children, poets and other intellectuals, killing thousands of unarmed people during wars. He is also known for revengeful nature.
Early military campaigns and administration
Aurangzeb Alamgir is known as “World Conqueror” for his extensive military campaigns during which he expanded the Mughal empire from its capital in Agra to Kabul and parts of South Asia. Under his reign, revenue of the crops was raised from a third to a half, extensive military campaigns were waged in the Deccan, and his services as a commander and administrator were highly valued by his emperor.
Aurangzeb Alamgir is considered one of the able commanders of the Mughal empire. As a prince, he was successful military strategist and a practical statesman. He advocated religious tolerance and better treatment of non-Muslims as well as Hindus under Muslim rule. His advocacy of Islam as a state religion is credited with modernizing India’s religious landscape.
His reign is marked with economic prosperity and increased agricultural prosperity due to high revenue collections from taxes and land revenues. However, his war on the Maratha empire led to heavy financial losses.
Under Aurangzeb’s reign, the country experienced unprecedented prosperity and agricultural prosperity due to high revenue collection from taxes and land revenues. It is also noted for technological advancements such as deh-kamal (micron sieve) printing press, tahsil system of administration, bimarga of jagir revenue management system, akhar-kamal (water-sieved) fabric, agra-siraj (ice house), indigo dyeing process, development of muslim literature including tahqeeq al-ahadith (‘citing authentic traditions’),( Tahqeeq al-ahadith), marathwada cotton boom etc.
The Bundela War was fought by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to subdue the ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan’s policy. Aurangzeb was successful in defeating Jhujhar Singh and removing him from power. During the Bundela War, Aurangzeb killed all four of Gobind Singh’s sons and decimated much of the Sikh army. In total, Aurangzeb was successful in defeating and destroying much of the Sikh army. The defeat of the Sikh army led to their eventual surrender and withdrawal from the region.
The Bundela War is remembered as one of the greatest military victories of Aurangzeb’s empire. However, it is also remembered for leading to a period of intense political and social turmoil in Punjab, lasting over 20 years. Azam Shah, Aurangzeb’s third son, eventually took over as emperor after his father’s death but he was defeated and killed in battle by Bahadur Shah I of Gujarat in 1661.
Viceroy of the Deccan
Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636 and, under his leadership, the vassal states of Bijapur, Golconda, and Ahmadnagar were brought to near-subjection. In 1646–47 Aurangzeb commanded troops against the Uzbeks and the Persians with distinction, earning recognition as a military genius. His two jagirs (land grants) were moved to Deccan as a result of his return in 1654. During his two terms as viceroy, he showed tactical and strategic military skill, great powers of dissimulation, and ruthless determination in the struggle for power.
Aurangzeb effectively reduced the two Muslim Deccan kingdoms to near-subjection during his tenure as viceroy, proving himself a successful ruler capable of keeping the empire intact while at the same time asserting its cultural and religious diversity.
Governor of Gujarat
Aurangzeb Alamgir was only 16 years old when he was appointed governor of Gujarat. He took up the position in 1656 and helped run the empire as his father, Shah Jahan, continued to battle with rival factions. After his appointment, Aurangzeb was sent on a number of military campaigns across northern India. During his time as governor of Gujarat, Aurangzeb proved to be an adept administrator who was able to successfully manage the vast empire. He is known for his military achievements and is credited with numerous victories during his time as governor of Gujarat. After his success in Gujarat, Aurangzeb was appointed governor of Balkh where he conducted successful military campaigns against Uzbek and Turkmen tribes.
Governor of Balkh
Aurangzeb Alamgir was appointed Governor of Balkh in 1647 and took up the challenge of stabilizing the region. The Mughal army faced many challenges during his tenure, as it was unable to live off the land and had to make an unsatisfactory deal with the Uzbeks. Nevertheless, Aurangzeb continued with his military campaigns against the Persian army in an attempt to capture Kandahar. The emperor conducted vigorous military campaigns to extend the frontiers of the Mughal empire. His long military campaigns in the Deccan lasted over 26 years and resulted in major territorial gains for the empire. Under his governorship, Balkh became a more secure and prosperous region of Afghanistan.
2nd term as Viceroy of the Deccan
During his second term as de facto ruler of the Deccan, Aurangzeb faced new challenges. The region was plagued by depopulation and poverty, and many of its states had fallen into disrepair during their long period of isolation. To address these issues, Aurangzeb’s administration required additional funding to maintain the rule of law and administer justice. As a result, he had to rely on revenue from Malwa and Gujarat for support. However, this created an imbalance in the regional economy as these two areas contributed significantly less than the Deccan in terms of revenue. In response to this issue, Aurangzeb moved some of his jagir grants to the Deccan to compensate for the area’s impoverishment. By doing so, he helped ensure that his empire remained stable and prosperous despite facing new challenges at home.
Aurangzeb Alamgir, the ruler of the Mughal Emperor from 1658 until 1707, is remembered as one of the most dynamic and courageous rulers of this empire. His reign is known for its many military and political achievements. He is widely considered as one of the greatest emperor in Indian history.
His reign is also known for his commitment to Islamism and his efforts in spreading Muslim rule across India. He is credited with having unified and strengthened the empire, by eliminating internal strife and rebellions.
Aurangzeb’s reign was marred by a series of political crises and defeats that ultimately led to his death on 3 March 1707 at the age of 62. After he died, his son-in-law Bahadur Shah I ascended to throne. However, he was unable to counter the Maratha empire which had become powerful under his reign.
Aurangzeb Alamgir was an able commander and administrator during his lifetime and had distinguished himself as an able administrator who pursued justice and fought against corruption with zeal.
He is known for his contribution in expanding the empire into South India and modernizing it. He is seen as a great warrior emperor who expanded Mughal rule to Peshawar, Bengal, Hyderabad, Kashmir, Chennai and other southern Indian kingdoms including Vijayanagaram (Cuddapah) in south India.
Aurangzeb Alamgir is hailed as one of the greatest Mughal emperors. His reign is noted for economic growth, centralization of power, and religious tolerance. Under his reign, the Mughals became a powerful empire that stretched from Bengal to Portugal. He is also known for his strict adherence to Islamic principles, which earned him the epithet Alamgir-e-Tahajjud‘ (‘Azam of Night Vigil’). He died in 1707 CE at the age of 63 and was succeeded by his son, Shah Jahan.